Progress beyond the state of the art

State-of-the-art concepts using pure vegetable oil as engine fuel that existed prior to the project allowed for achieving EURO3 emission levels for road vehicles and Stage 2 for non-road vehicles in specifically adapted diesel engines for rape seed oil fitting to the German pre-norm DIN V 51605. Development efforts to comply with the Euro4 norm for road vehicles and Stage 3A for non-road vehicles were in progress but no state-of-the-art solutions were in place yet. However, advanced biofuels should allow that emissions keep within the limits of the forthcoming EURO6 norm for road vehicles and EU stage 4 / US TIER4 for non-road vehicles. This was the challenge to be met in this project.
Until then, pure vegetable oil had never been adapted to existing diesel engines (except through trans-esterification to biodiesel), but always the engine had been adapted to the fuel. In this project, a double strategy was followed: engines as well as the fuel were adapted such that both matched and the combination allowed for achieving high engine performance at minimum fuel consumption fitting with most severe emission limits.

The expected progress beyond the state-of-the-art can be broken down as follows:

  • new engine concepts for a wider range of pure vegetable oils used as engine fuel;
  • new concepts for 2nd generation vegetable oils better fitting to specific engine requirements, achieved through blending and additives, without giving up the specific advantages of non-toxicity and low flammability (the latter at least for the major part of the logistics chain);
  • development/ demonstration of engine oils (lubricant oils) for engines running on pure vegetable oil;
  • successful demonstration of operation of advanced tractors complying with EU stage 3A to 4 / US TIER 3 to 4 emission limits;
  • successful operation of a hybrid vehicle engine fitting with EU Stage 4 (comparable with EURO 6) emission limits;
  • more specific and checked proposals for quality norms at European level, including the preparation of a EU-wide standard on 2nd generation vegetable oils.


Seventh Framework Programme
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